Poly Start with a plane. Add an Edit Poly Modifier. Extrude edges out & manipulate to match virtual studio.
Patch Start with a quad or tri editable patch. These are spline squares with each corner having a Bezier Corner vertex and a surface modifier built in. Extrude edges out and manipulate vertices & handles to match virtual studio. Like NURBS only simpler.
Spline Draw lines and/or shapes; convert to editable splines. Use vertices to manipulate into geometry cage. Apply surface modifier to cover. Like PATCH modelling in the dark ages!
NURBS - (non - uniform rational B spline) The most complex type of modelling. Surfaces are harder to control due to the inordinate amount of control points (knots). Mathematically correct vectors ensure this type of modelling stays in the aircraft & motor industries.
Box This is 3D modelling in it's most basic form. Primitives are manipulated via vertices, edges and polygons to form geometry. Year 1 stuff.
Bezier French engineer Pierre Bézier, car designer at Renault 1962. They are curves, created through the manipulation of the handles of a Bezier vertex.
Ngons These are polygons with more than four sides. You should strive to keep your models in quads only. Remove all tris and Ngons for a cleaner model.